Car emissions in 2015 will have to be reduced by 18% by a gliding scale of annual emission reduction. The month of November saw a intensive discussion in the ‘trialogue’ discussions between Parliament Commission and Council; a French proposal was adopted on December 1  to gradually limit CO2 emissions to 120 g/km for 65% of new cars in 2012, 75% in 2013, 80% in 2014 and 100% in 2015 (European Commission had initially proposed introducing the caps on all new cars sold in the region in 2012. A target of 130g/km is to be reached by improvements in vehicle motor technology. A further 10g/km reduction towards the 120g/km target should be obtained by other technical improvements, such as better tyres or the use of biofuels. The agreement also reduced the proposed fines against carmakers that breach the limits. Between 2012 and 2018, the fine will be €5 for the first gram of CO2, €15 for the second gram, €25 for the third and €95 from the fourth gram of CO2 onwards. From 2019 manufacturers will have to pay €95 for each gramme exceeding the target. The Commission had proposed to start fines at €20 per exceeding gram in 2012, rising to €35 in 2013, €60 in 2014 and, finally, €95 in 2015. In the long term, the compromise sets the target of average emissions at 95g CO2/km for the new car fleet by 2020.