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HyNor Porsgrunn

Location: Porsgrunn, Norway
Opening date: June, 2007
Pressure: 700 bar

Rotherham Wind Hydrogen Station

Location: Catcliffe, United Kingdom
Opening date: September 2015
Pressure: 350 and 700 bar

HYPE / Pont de l’Alma

Location: Paris, France
Opening date:
Pressure: 700 bar

Multienergy station Bolzano

Location: Bolzano, Italy
Opening date: 2015
Pressure: 350 bar

Holstebro - Non-Road DK

Location: Holstebro, Denmark
Opening date: June, 2011
Pressure: 700 bar

TOTAL Heerstraße 37

Location: Berlin, Germany
Opening date: 2012
Pressure: 700 bar

Hyop Gaustad

Location: Oslo, Norway
Opening date: November, 2011
Pressure: 700 bar

Air Liquide Hydrogen Refueling Station

Location: Rhoon, The Netherlands
Opening date: 2016
Pressure: 70MPa

Holstebro Refueling Station

Location: Holstebro, Denmark
Opening date:
Pressure: 70MPa

The future energy system is challenged by the intermittent nature of renewables and requires therefore several flexibility options. Still, the interaction between different options, the optimal portfolio and the impact on environment and society are unknown. It is thus the core objective of REFLEX to analyse and evaluate the development towards a low-carbon energy system with focus on flexibility options in the EU to support the implementation of the SET-Plan. As concerns about the adequacy of electricity generation are rising in Europe, decision makers try to support new investments in generating capacities and incentivize demand side flexibility (e.g. demand response or storages). As this process is still ongoing and there exists a broad variety of options, the goal of the EU funded REFLEX project published a paper to provide an up-to-date overview of currently implemented or proposed market design options in European electricity markets and other already established design options outside Europe.

Large shares of volatile energy production from wind power and photovoltaics are challenging the electricity system and lead to decreasing electricity wholesale prices. Due to the meritorder-effect, in hours with electricity feed-in from renewable energy sources wholesale prices decline significantly. Additionally, electricity generation from renewable energy sources leads to fewer full-load hours of conventional power plants. The liberalized market combined with the European market coupling increases the efficient use of generation resources and reduces returns for power generators in times without scarcity. However, returns above variable costs are necessary to cover fixed costs, otherwise, power plants will be decommissioned for economic reasons. But flexible power plants in combination with other flexibility options, such as demand response or storages, are important for ensuring generation adequacy during scarcity situations.